Thin films of TiSi 2 are obtained by magnetron sputtering targets of highly pure Ti, produced by multiple EB vacuum-melting Ti rods and followed by a heat treatment of the film obtained under nitrogen with O content of 10 −4 %. The heat treatment is conducted in a diffusion furnace.
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resistance and induction heating, the systems do not have to contend with high volumes of ignition products, and thus can be contained. The typical furnace types used in gas heating are box, tunnel, and bell. The HIP furnace can be heated by gas and resistance. When carbon is the heating element, the furnace is an autoclave sealed-type one.
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121 CHAPTER 7 DOPANT SEGREGATION AND SINTERING UNDER REDUCING ATMOSPHERE 7. 7 .1 Segregation and Defect Associates It has been shown that the compo sition and microstructure of a ceramic material have a strong effect on its ionic conductiv ity. 11,12,32,70,106 108 For example, the resistance to ionic conduction is much higher for grain
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The casts were doped with 500 ppm Mg2+. After drying and surface finishing, the compacts were thermal heated by vacuum sintering at temperatures lower than 1650 °C. It is found that heat treatment at 1600 °C for 2h can be used to achieve translucent alumina with mean grain sizes 8.6 μm and real in-line transmittance 5.18%.
In the United States, basic oxygen furnace production has increased from 7 percent of the raw steel produced in 1962 to 62 percent in 1975. Electric furnaces are generally charged with cold scrap and alloying agents to produce a variety of steels. Heat Is produced by electricity flowIng through the metal.
Vanadium increases the tensile strength and hardness of cast iron and in combina.tion with chromium and molybdenum im- proves heat-treatment hardenability, wear resistance, and higher temperature properties. When used with molybdenum, finer and more uniform graphite flakes result.
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Abstract. Electroceramic calcium copper titanates (CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12, CCTO), with high dielectric permittivities (ε) of approximately 10 5 and 10 4, respectively, for single crystal and bulk materials, are produced for a number of well-established and emerging applications such as resonator, capacitor, and sensor.
In examples 37 and 41, heat treatment below the sintering temperature caused the second phase to dewet from the AIN, resulting in an increase in both dihedral angle and resistivity. Further treatment at sintering temperatures, in examples 37 and 40 resulted in a decrease in both dihedral angle and resistivity.
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A porous thermal insulating firebrick formed by molding and drying bubble-containing slurry obtained by foaming slurry containing a fire resistant powder with a heat resistant temperature of 1,000° C. or higher and water has the porosity of 60% or more, and 80% or more volume with respect to a total pore volume of the inside of the thermal